Basics definitions for a better understanding

Click here for a definition of the Carbon Market mechanism

GHG - GreenHouse Gas

These are natural and anthropogenic gases in the atmosphere that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. The GHGs regulated by the Paris Agreement are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Accumulation of GHGs in the atmosphere is one of the factors affecting the global warming mechanism. Water vapour, ozone and CFCs are other GHGs not covered by the Paris Agreement.

Source: Arnaud Brohé (2016), The Handbook of Carbon Accounting, Routledge


GreenHouse Effect

A phenomenon in which the atmosphere of a planet traps radiation emittedby its sun, caused by gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, andmethane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but retain heatradiated back from the planet's surface.



Kyoto Protocol

When industrialized countries signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 they made a commitment to reduce their emissions of six main GHGs by an average of 5% between 2008 and 2012, compared to 1990, which was chosen as a reference year.

The video summarize the history of climate change negotiations since the first summit of 1972 in Stockholm

Source: Arnaud Brohé (2016), The Handbook of Carbon Accounting, Routledge


Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement (French: Accord de Paris), Paris climate accord or Paris climate agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.

Source: Arnaud Brohé (2016), The Handbook of Carbon Accounting, Routledge


Mission 2020

Mission 2020 is a global campaign, blending radical collaboration and relentless optimism to put emissions on a downward path by 2020. When it comes to our climate, timing is everything, and we have a game-changing opportunity to make the big changes now. 
In the landmark Paris Climate Agreement, the world’s nations have committed to “holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels”. This goal is deemed necessary to avoid incalculable risks to humanity, and it is feasible – but realistically only if global emissions peak by the year 2020 at the latest.



2050 Targets

The United Nations commits all signatory nations to formulate, implement, publish and update measures to prepare for the impacts of climate change, known as ‘adaptation’. It also commits countries to cooperate on adaptation and provides a variety of support mechanisms for the implementation of adaptation measures in developing countries.